SexEdNotes   ~   Conception


In these Anatomy sections, new terms or the names of new body parts will have Leading Caps to emphasize to the reader their significance. Be sure you know what each term or part is as you read through the material.


CONCEPTION (beginning of a new life)

ALL of the following are required before conception will occur:

  1. Ejaculate must contain healthy, viable Sperm. An Ejaculation contains from 150 to 600 million Sperm cells, and they must travel a distance of from 6 to 8 inches inside the woman's body at the average speed of one inch per 8 minutes.

  2. Ejaculate must enter the Vagina by being placed inside or at the Vaginal opening.

  3. To allow the Sperm to live, the Vagina cannot be too acidic, and no spermicide may be present. Sperm can live in the Vagina for about six hours, and if healthy can reach the Cervix within 90 seconds after ejaculation.

  4. Sperm must enter the Uterus. The Mucus Plug may be closing the Cervical Os if the Menstrual Cycle is near the 19th day of the 'month'. Also, a barrier-type of birth control device may still be in place.

  5. Sperm must enter the Fallopian Tube that contains the Egg. Only about 6,000 Sperm reach the top of the Uterus, and half will go to each Fallopian Tube, so half are eliminated for the trip to the Egg. If the Egg is not waiting in the tube, the Sperm can survive for 3 to 5 days, and even wait up to 8 days. Only one Sperm cell has to reach the Egg.

  6.  A healthy, viable Egg must be waiting or arrive within a few days to the top of the tube. The Egg will only be viable for 3 hours once released. From 100 to 300 Sperm cells make it to the Egg.

  7. One single Sperm cell must penetrate the Egg cell wall by using the Sperm cell's enzymes to break down the outer wall. Once the first Sperm cell penetrates the Egg cell wall, all other contenders are immediately turned away. The nuclei of both the Egg and the Sperm fuse together.

  8. Conception has occurred! 



CONTRACEPTION (Also called Birth Control -  prevents conception)

A contraceptive device or medication is designed to prevent a viable Sperm from reaching a viable Egg which can result in a pregnancy. No contraceptive device can prevent the transmission of an STD.

There is only one way to be 100% sure of not becoming pregnant, or of not giving or receiving an STD, and that is ABSTINANCE!!

Let's look at some of the methods of contraception that are available, and discuss their effectiveness:

 Ranking For Prevention of STD's :     
Prevention of Pregnancy In Practice:   # of fails/100:      
Prevention of Pregnancy In Practice:  percentage:       
Prevention of Pregnancy, Theoretical:   # of fails/100:     


Prevention of Pregnancy, Theoretical:    percentage:        

Method of Contraception...

Abstinence 100 0 100 0 1st
Female Sterilization: Tubal Ligation 99.9 - 99.9 - Zero
Male Sterilization: Vasectomy 99.5 - 99.5 - Zero
Oral Pills (combination type) 99 1 95 5 Zero
Condom with spermicide 99 1 95 5 2nd
Intra-Uterine Device (IUD) 95 5 94 6 Zero
Oral Pills (continuous type) 96 4 90 10 Zero
Condom (sheath) 97 3 80 20 3rd
Cervical Cap with spermicide 97 3 75 25 Zero
Withdrawal Method 85 15 75 25 Zero
Spermicidal Foam 97 3 70 30 Zero
Sponge (women that have not given birth ) 91 9 88 12 Zero
Rhythm or Calendar Method 85 15 65 35 Zero
Sponge (women that have given birth ) 80 20 76 24 Zero


Methods of Contraception:

  • Abstinence - - This simply means that you abstain from having sexual contact with another person.
  • Tubal Ligation - - The woman's two Fallopian Tubes are severed and tied closed so Sperm cannot reach the Egg.
  • Vasectomy - - The man's two Vas Deferens are severed and tied closed so Sperm cannot leave the man's Epididymis.
  • Oral Pills (both types) - - The woman swallows them and they change the body's hormones and stop Ovulation. 
  • Condom with spermicide - - First used in 1564, contains Ejaculate to be tossed away before it enters the Vagina.
  • Intra-Uterine Device (IUD) - - Floats in the Vagina to dislodge any fertilized Egg that attaches to the Uterine wall.
  • Condom (sheath) - - Same as above but without use of a Spermicidal cream applied inside at the tip of the Penis.
  • Cervical Cap with spermicide - - A vinyl cap placed over the Cervix to block Sperm from entering the Cervical Os.
  • Withdrawal Method - - Simply pulling the Penis from the Vagina before Ejaculation.
  • Spermicidal Foam - - Pressurized in a can, it places a blockage in the Vagina, in front of the Cervical Os.
  • Sponge - - A sponge containing water-activated spermicide that blocks entry of the Sperm to the Cervical Os.
  • Rhythm or Calendar Method - - Keeping track of the woman's periods and she has Coitus only when she is not fertile.

Sterilization is a voluntary surgical procedure that will render a person unable to impregnate or become pregnant.

If done to a male it is called a Vasectomy:

  • A small incision is made on each side of the upper end of the Scrotum under pain deadener similar to what a Dentist uses.
  • Each Vas Deferens tube is slipped out enough so that a small portion (1/2" long) is removed from each tube. Both sides of the cut of each tube are clamped or tied back onto themselves and are cauterized to seal the ends.
  • This takes about half an hour in the doctor's office, and is followed by a day's rest. In some countries... India for one... Vasectomies are offered on the lunch hour and they return to work the rest of the day.
  • Much less expensive and much quicker than Tubal Ligation.
  • There is no change to the man's sexual drive, his hormonal supply, his quantity of Semen he produces, or his level of sexual performance. No Sperm comes from the Penis, but you cannot see Sperm in an ejaculation so you cannot tell by looking if the man has been sterilized... only proven by checking the ejaculate with a microscope for living Sperm cells.
  • This procedure prevents Sperm from leaving the Epididymis. It will die and be re-absorbed into the man's body.
  • This procedure has been reversed but it should be undertaken with the idea that it is NON-REVERSIBLE.


If done to a female it is called a Tubal Ligation:

  • This requires abdominal surgery, or it can be done through small incisions into the abdomen (Laparoscopic or 'Band-Aid' Surgery) or chemically to cause damage to the Fallopian Tubes to make them develop scar tissue and grow closed. To eliminate any scars that can be seen when you wear a bikini, it can be done through the Vagina, or on the Bikini Line.
  • Both Fallopian Tubes are located and a small portion is removed from each one. Both ends of both tubes are tied back onto themselves and the severed ends are cauterized.
  • Other methods such as plugs, clamps, chemicals and even removal of the Fallopian Tubes can be applied.
  • This procedure may require up to several days in a hospital and up to several weeks of recovery, depending upon the method used.
  • Often much more extensive and expensive than a Vasectomy.
  • There is no change to the woman's sexual drive, except that it might be even better with the removal of the fear of pregnancy occurring.
  • It is thought to alter the production of hormones and cause PTLS (Post Tubal Ligation Syndrome).
  • The Ovum will not leave the Fallopian Tubes. They will die and be re-absorbed into the body.
  • This procedure has been reversed, but it should be undertaken with the idea that it is NON-REVERSIBLE.


***NOTE***  In a committed monogamous relationship, if only one partner is sterilized, pregnancy will not happen after it is done.  Also... remember that either of these procedures will do absolutely nothing to prevent the transmission or the reception of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.